charcha
HOME
PAGE

kwc swc

to contact: D.S. Dhillon (0044) 07878228283
e.mail: d.darshan@btinternet.com

afdmI ƒ afdmI qoN kuJ vwD bxfAux vflf:
ÌrYzirk nIqÈy
zf[ dyivMdr sYÌI

''mnuwK XuwD ies leI krdf hY ik Auh kmËor iewCf ÈkqI vflf huMdf hY. rcnfqmk ÈkqI qoN ivhUxf hox krky hI Auh hiQafr AuTfAuNdf hY. afdmI mrn qoN mgroN svrg jfx leI qQfkiQq cMgy kMm ies leI krdf hY ik Auh ijAuNdy jIa afpxy afp ƒ kmËor vyKdf hY.``

ies qrHF dI soc rwKx vflf pRiswD dfrÈink nIqÈy 15 akqUbr 1849 eI[ ƒ pRÈIaF ivwc pYdf hoieaf. sbwb nfl ies idn pRÈIaF `qy Èfsn kr rhy rfjy PrYzirk ivlIam cOQy d jnm idn sI. Ausdy ipqf ny rfj pirvfr dy keI mYNbrF ƒ pVHfieaf sI. dyÈ BgqI sdkf Ausny ies lVky df nfm vI rfjy dy nfm `qy rwiKaf. ipqf dI mOq CyqI hox kfrn Ausdf bcpn Dfrimk BfvnfvF rwKx vflIaF iesqrIaF ivwc bIiqaf. ies leI Aus dI qbIaq vI iesqrIaF vrgI sohl bx geI. Auh afpxy hfx dy muMizaF dIaF KyzF qy ÈrfrqF ƒ psMd nhIN krdf sI. Cotf huMdf Auh iekFq ivwc bfeIbl pVHn bYT jFdf, dUijaF ƒ ieMnI Bfvnf nfl suxfAuNdf ik suxn vfilaF dIaF awKF ivwc awQrU af jFdy.

aTfrF sfl dI Aumr ivwc Aus aMdroN afpxy puriKaF vfly eIÈvr ivwcoN ivÈvfÈ jFdf irhf. bfkI dI sfrI Aumr Ausny prm-mnuwK ('mhf-mfnv`) dI Bfl ivwc lgf idwqI.  Aus anusfr Ausƒ ieh mhF-mfnv lwB vI igaf sI. jvfnI ivwc Ausny kuJ smF mrdfvyN hunr vI pfly. pr CyqI hI Ausƒ Èrfb, iesqrI qy qMbfkU afid qoN nÌrq ho geI. iesy smyN dOrfn Ausƒ sfpnhfr dI rcnf 'iewCf` aqy ivcfr rUp sMsfr' lwB geI. ijsny Ausdy jIvn `qy bhuq iËafdf pRBfv pfieaf. Aus anusfr ies rcnf dI hr sqr iqafg, svY-kfbU, afqm-smrpx, leI AuWcI pukfr hY.

qyeI sfl dI Aumr ivwc Ausƒ jbrI sYink BrqI kIqf igaf. iksy GoVy qoN izwg pYx nfl Aus dIaF pslIaF ƒ eynI cot afeI ik POj vfly Ausƒ Cwzx leI mËbUr ho gey. iPr Auh BfÈf ivigafnI bx igaf. pwcIaf sflF dI Aumr ivwc Ausƒ bFsl XUnIvristI ivwc purfqn BfÈf ivigafn df pRoPYsr inXukq kIqf igaf. iesy smyN dOrfn AusdI rucI zfktrI qy sMgIq vwl hoeI qy kuJ gIq vI ilKy. Auh kihMdf, ''sMgIq ivhUxf jIvn iewk glqI hovygI. Ausny mhfn sMgIqkfr vYgnr qoN sMgIq iswiKaf. vYgnr dy pRBfv qoN hI Ausny afpxI pihlI pusqk ilKxI ÈurU kIqI. rOly-rwpy qoN dUr rih ky ÈFqI nfl ilKx leI Auh aYlps dy phfVF Aupr clf igaf. 1870 ivwc jrmn qy PrFs df XuwD iCwV ipaf. Auh jÉmIaF dy mrhm pwtI krdf irhf. lhU dy idRÈF ny AusdI qbIaq Érfb kr idwqI. iewQoN Auh Gr clf igaf.

1872 dy ÈurU ivwc Ausny afpxI pihlI qy sMpUrn pusqk pRkfiÈq krvfeI 'sMgIqk-sipirt` ivwcoN duKFq df jnm. kfÌI smF vYgnr nfl guËfrn qy iPr Ausdy jrmn jfx qoN bfad nIqÈy ƒ iPr iekwilaF rihx ipaf.  nIqÈy df hor koeI dosq nhIN sI. lVkIaF dy pRqI AusdI rucI nhIN sI, sgoN lVkIaF qoN icVHdf sI. ies dI vjHf ieh dwsI jFdI hY ik ijnHF idnF ivwc Auh pVHdf sI, afpxy kuJ dosqF nfl vyÈvf-Gr igaf sI, qy roggRsq ho igaf, iekwly ƒ ikqy jf ky ielfj krvfAuxf ipaf. iehnF idnF ivwc ieh rog iBafnk sI. iesy idn qoN hI Èfied Ausƒ aOrq nfl nÌrq ho geI sI. Ausny kdy ivafh nhIN krvfieaf. keI vfr Auh afpxy afp ƒ qklIÌ dyx dI koiÈÈ krdf, keI idn Kfxf nf KFdf, TMz ivwc Trdf rihMdf. 1876 ivwc Ausny pVHfAuxf Cwz idwqf, ilKxf jfrI rwiKaf. mnoivigafnk idRÈtI nfl Auh aksr hI aijhf kuJ ilK idMdf, ijsƒ pVH ky lok ckfcOND ho jFdy. vDyry lok AusdIaF ilKqF ƒ svIkfr nhIN kr rhy sn. ies smyN dOrfn hI Aus ny sB qoN pRiswD puwsqk 'jrQustr ny ikhf` ilKI, iesdy cfr KMz Cpy. ies ivwc nIqÈy awCfeI, burfeI, kdrF-kImqF, mirafdfvF, nYiqk pRÈnF ivwc iËafdf AuliJaf irhf. ies pusqk df muwK pfqr jrQustr mhF-mfnv hY. jrQustr 30 virHaF dI Aumr ivwc jMglF ivwc clf jFdf hY. AuQy Auh  ds sfl iekwilaF suwK nfl ijAuNdf hY. iewQy hI Auh iek idn sUrj nfl sMvfd rcfAuNdf hY:

            ''Eh mhfn isqfry, kI hovygI qyrI KuÈI jy Auh hI nf huMdy ijnHF leI qUM cmkdf hY?`` mYN afpxI isafxp qoN awk igaf hF, Èihd dI mwKI vFg, ijs ny bhuq iËafdf Èihd iekwTf kIqf hovy. mYƒ loV hY hwQF dI, ijhVy myry qwk phuMc jfx.

ies pusqk ivwc nIqÈy df mhf-mfnv KqiraF ivwc ijAUx dI iswiKaf idMdf hY. Auh aivÈvfÈ krn `qy Ëor idMdf hY. ËrQustr phfV qoN hyTF af ky iek ibrD sfDU nfl gwl krdf hoieaf rwb dI mOq vwl ieÈfrf krdf hY. Aus anusfr jo lok-pRlok dIaF gwlF krdy hn, AuQoN dy suMdr supny idKfAux dIaF gwlF krdy hn, Auh Ëihr dyx vfly hn. Aus anusfr ijsny vI swcfeI df pRcfr krnf hY Ausƒ pihlF ivnfÈkfrI hoxf pvygf Bfv purfxIaF jrjrIaF kImqF ƒ htfAuxf pvygf. Auh mnuwK sB ƒ sB qoN vwD byqrs pÈU dwsdf hY, ikAuNik mnuwK sfnHF dIaF lVfeIaF sUlI dy nËfry vyK ky KuÈ huMdf hY, iesy leI mnuwK ny nrk df afivÈkfr kIqf. nIqÈy blvfn ivakqI dy ivksq hox dI gwl krdf hY. mnuwK jfqI df aMiqm AudyÈ prm mnuwK hoxf cfhINdf hY. nIqÈy, pRymIaF ƒ ivafh krn dI KuwlH nhIN idMdf ikAuNik jrUrI nhIN ik mnuwK ipafr vI kry qy isafxf vI hovy Aus anusfr ivafh kyvl ÈRyÈT iesqrI-purÈ leI hoxf cfhINdf hY.

ËrQustr puwCdf hY, ''qusIN nvXuvk ho, ÈfdI krky sMqfn dI iewCf rwKdy ho pr mYN quhfƒ puwCdf hF ik kI qusIN afpxy afp ƒ ijwq ilaf hY afpxIaF ieMdrIaF qy kfbU pf ilaf hY? jF ik quhfzI vfsnf aMdr pÈU hI boldf hY?`` quhfƒ afpxy qoN Aucyrf kuJ pYdf krnf cfhINdf hY. ies pRkfr Auh kihMdf hY ik sfAUpuxf jF ÈRyÈTqf Auh hI hY jo mnuwK dy aMdr df Bfv bl qy sMklp ƒ vDfey. Auh kRFqI ƒ bhuq cMgf smJdf hY.
            nIqÈy df prm mnuwK ÈkqI, buwDI qy svYmfx nfl bxdf hY. iehnF ivwc ieksurqf hoxI cfhINdI hY. jËby AudoN hI ÈkqI bxdy hn, jdoN iksy mhfn AudyÈ leI cuxy jFdy hn. afdmI dUijaF pRqI sÉq hovy qy sB qoN vwD ky afpxy pRqI koeI aijhf pRXojn rwKy, ijs leI Auh isvfey iksy imwqr nfl DoKf krn dy koeI vI kMm krn ƒ iqafr ho jfvy. sfzf sB df koeI ieho ijhf AudyÈ hoxf cfhINdf hY ijs dI Éfqr asIN iek dUjy ƒ ipafr kr skdy hF. kudrq smfnqf ƒ iGrxf krdI hY qy ivakqIaF, ÈRyxIaF qy jIv jMqUaF dIaF jfqIaF qy iviBMnqfvF ƒ ipafr krdI hY.

nIqÈy pUMjIvfdI lokF dI mwD ÈRyxI ƒ lMgUrF dI ÈRyxI kihMdf hY jo ik iek dUjy qy svfr ho ky afpxy afp ƒ icwkV ivwc Dwk iljFdy hn. aijhy lokF pfs Dn-sMmqI hox df koeI lfB nhIN huMdf ikAuN jo Auh iesdI sucwjI vrqoN sfihq aqy klf leI nhIN krdy. aijhy DnI mnuwK iÈkfrI bx jFdy hn Auh hmyÈf qfk ivwc rihMdy hn, Pryb nfl pdfrQ pRfpq krdy hn, hryk BFq dy kUVy krkt ivwcoN Coty-Coty munfÌy lwBdy iPrdy hn. nIqÈy AuhnF lokF leI jMg ËrUrI dwsdf hY ijhVy kmËor suwK-rihxy qy iGRxf Xog bxdy jf rhy hox. Aus anusfr jMg lok-qFiqRk hIjVypx leI bhuq ËrUrI aOÈDI hY. rfjnIqI bfry gwl krdf hoieaf nIqÈy iPr ilKdf hY ik vDIk sulJy hoey mnuwK df hI Èfsn krn df aiDkfr huMdf hY. ijAuNdIaF vsqF df ieho inXm hY. nIqÈy dIaF icMqnÈIl gwlF iek dm ckFcOD kr idMdIaF hn ijvyN:-

1           'smJdfr afdmI nf isrÌ duÈmx ƒ ipafr krdy hn blik afpxy dosq ƒ nÌrq krn dI smrwQf vI rKdy hn.`
2          'agr pOVIaF quhfzy lfiek nf hox qF qusIN afpxy isr `qy cVHo qy afpxy afp ƒ AucfeI qNo vyKo.`
3          vyKo myry ipwCy KuÈI Bwj ky afeI hY. mYN aOrq dy ipwCy nhIN Bwjdf iesy leI KuÈI myry ipwCy Bwj ky afeI hY ikAuNik
KuÈI vI iek aOrq hY.`
4          'iebfdq krnf Èrmnfk hY, sB vfsqy nhIN myry vrgy lokF leI, ikAuNik qusIN kfier ho ies leI quhfƒ lwgdf hY quhfzy aMdr ÈYqfn viVaf bYTf hY, AuhI quhfƒ mËbUr krdf hY ik qusIN iebfdq kro. Xfd rwKo-qusIN roÈnI qoN zrn vfly lokF ivwcoN ho. quhfzy qoN roÈnI kMnI kqrfAuNdI rhygI.`
5          'ivcfr qy ivcfr lok KFdy rhy, iesy leI lokF df pyt Érfb ho igaf.`
6          'mYN igrjf-GrF dy nfl purfxy eIÈvr dI kbr nfl vI ipafr kr skdf hF, Èrq hY ik eIÈvr igrjF-GrF dIaF CwqF qoN kuJ ÈuwD awKF nfl hyTF dyKx dI koiÈÈ kry.`
7          'awj rwb kbr ivwc dÌn hY aqy qusIN ijAuNdy ho. hux mhF-mfnv hI svfmI hovygf.`
8          'jy qusIN Aupr jfxf hY qF afpxI lwqF df iesqymfl kro. ies qrHF nf cfho ik koeI dUjf quhfƒ Aupr lY jfvy. lokF dy moiZaF `qy nf bYTy.`
9          'jo vI iswiKaf hY Ausƒ Buwl jfAu. Auh sB kuJ Buwl jfAu, jo quhfƒ hr cIË df kfrn jF hr cIË dI mirafdf smJfAuNdf hY.
10         'afpxy pUrvjF dy pdicMnHF qy cwlogy qF ieh dwso - AuhnF qoN Aupr iks qrHF AuTogy?`
11         'mYƒ quhfzf svrg nhIN cfhINdf. mYN mnuwK ho igaf hF aqy DrqI `qy hI jIvFgf.`
12         'pRÈnF qoN ieMnf pRhyË ikqy nhIN huMdf ijMnf ik Dfrimk Kyqr ivwc. iesdy bfvjUd afm lokF ƒ hI nhIN sgoN dfrÈinkF ƒ vI iehny afkriÈq kIqf hY qy iehnF sfiraF ny imlky byhUdgI qy aMD ivÈvfÈ dy kUVy dy AuWcy-Aucy Zyr lf idwqy hn.`
13         'isrÌ Auh afdmI awCy qy bury df inrmfqf ho skdf hY jo afdmI dI mMiËl dI rcnf kr sky aqy dunIaF ƒ Aus df arQ qy BivwK dy sky.
14         'jo swiBaqf ƒ awgy lY ky jfx df Xqn krdf hY,  Ausƒ hI afpxI blI dyxI pYNdI hY.`
15         'sfzy ivcfr ikAuNik qfËy qy nvyN huMdy hn, ies leI Auh pujfrIaF ƒ qfËy bkry dy gosq vrgy cMgy lwgdy hn. mYƒ aijhy lokF nfl hI ipafr hY jo ies qrHF mrn qoN nhIN zrdy.`
16         'iek purfxf vihm hY - pfp qy puMn. ies dy cfry pfsy BivwK dwsx vfly pujfrI qy joqÈI cwkr kwtdy hn.
17         'jo quhfƒ ieh kihMdy ny ik corI nf kro, hwiqaf nf kro, AuhnF awgy juwqIaF lfh ky isr JukfAuNdy ho. mYN puwCdf hF ik kI ieh Auh lok nhIN ijnHF ny quhfƒ luwitaf hY, quhfzI hwiqaf kIqI hY. E Boly Bfly loko, mYN kihMdf hF qoV idE purfxIaF iebfrqF, imtf idAu.`
18         'ihMmq hI sB qoN vwzf hiQafr hY. ihMmq nfl qusIN hfr ƒ mfr skogy.`

bfad ivwc nIqÈy iesfeI mq df gihrf aflock bx igaf sI qy Ausny ivaMg kIqf hY ik eIsfeI afpxy duÈmx ƒ iesy leI ipafr krdf hY ik Auh cfhuMdf hY ik iesy afDfr `qy Aus nUM svrg iml jfvy qy duÈmx ƒ nrk dI awg ivwc sVdf vyK sky. Ausny qkrIbn sfzy sfry smfijk muwlF qy nYiqk mirafdfvF AuWqy pRÈn icMnH lgfieaf hY. 1886 ivwc Ausny iek hor pusqk ''awCfeI aqy duÈmxF qoN pry`` ilKI. Ausny awCy qy bury, awCy qy duÈt ivwc aMqr dwisaf. ''nYiqkqf dI vMsfvlI` pusqk Ausny agly sfl pRkfiÈq krvfeI.

'mUrqIaF df DuMdlkf` aqy 'afpxI gwl` ivwc byhwd ivaMg hY. iesy smyN dOrfn Ausny sB qoN vwD ivvfdgRsq pusqk 'eIsf dy ivruwD` ilKI. ijs ivc Ausny iesfeI nYiqkqf dI KuwlH ky aflocnf kIqI. ies qoN ielfvf Ausny Èfpnhfr `qy rcnf kIqI. ihtlr ny Ausdy ivcfrF ƒ qoV-mroV ky afpxy ihwqF leI vriqaf. nIqÈy ny vwzy pwDr `qy buwDIjIvIaF ƒ pRBfivq kIqf. Ìrfiez ny vI Ausƒ mnoivigafn dI gihrI smJ rwKx vflf smiJaf hY. afDuink icMqk acfrIaf rjnIÈ ny Ausƒ mhfqmf buwD dy brfbr df dfrÈink mMinaf hY.

            nIqÈy dI ivcfr qIbrqf ny Ausƒ smyN qoN pihlF hI  jrËrf kr idwqf. asl ivc Aus df hfsf vI idmfgI ivgfV vflf ho igaf. Ausny iesy siQqI ivc ikhf ik ''mnuwK hI iewko iewk aijhf pÈU hY ijhVf hws skdf hY. kyvl Auh hI ieMnf asih qy akih kÈt shfrdf hY ik Ausƒ mËbUr ho ky hfsy df afivÈkfr krnf ipaf.`` nIqÈy dI jdoN nËr jf rhI sI qF Ausdy iek pRÈMÈk ny 400 zflr df cYk Byijaf. pr ieh sB kuJ bVf lyt ho cuwikaf sI. iesy smyN Auh pfglF vFg vYgnr aqy aYzIsn ƒ icwTIaF JrItx lwigaf. Ausƒ iek pfglÉfny ivwc lY ky gey pr CyqI hI AusdI ibrD mfqf AuQoN Ausƒ lYx af geI. 1897 ivwc AusdI mfqf vI clfxf kr geI. iPr nIqÈy dI iek BYx Ausƒ afpxy kol lY geI. iewQy iek klfkfr krymn ny Ausdf buwq bxf idwqf. iesy vkq jdoN AusdI BYx ro rhI sI qF Ausny ikhf ''qUM roNdI ikAuN hY, kI asIN pRsMn nhIN?`` ikqfbF bfry gwl huMidaF Ausdf ichrf cmk AuiTaf, qy ikhf, ''vfh jI vfh! mYN kuJ cMgIaF pusqkF ilKIaF hn.`` ieh kihMidaF hoieaF ieh mhfn pRiqBf dunIaF qoN ruÉsq hoeI. ieh 1900 df sfl sI. Auh afdmI ƒ afdmI qoN kuJ vwD bxfAux leI bhuq kuJ kr igaf.