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husYnIvfilEN pfrly bMny

to contact: D.S. Dhillon (0044) 07878228283
e.mails: d.darshan@btinternet.com
or Gurnam Kanwar Chandigarh
e.mail: gurnamkanwar@gmail.com
Nasir
nfsr rfxf (zf:)

pfiksqfn ivwc Koj qy aflocnf
nfsr rfxf (zf:)

pfiksqfnI dOr dI qihkIk qy qnkId dy vyrvy qy mhfkmy qoN ieh hkIkq sfmxy afeI aY ik pMjfbI ivwc adb dy ies ÉsUsI pwK vwl sUJvfnF df iDafn pfiksqfn dI hoNd dy nfl eI ho igaf qy qihkIk qy qnkId df muwZ muhMmd srUr dI ‘pMjfbI adb’ dy Èfie (Cwpx) hox nfl bwJ igaf sI. iehdy ivc kI Èwk ey ik koeI ikqfb Xk dwm nhIN ilKI jFdI. Auhdy ipwCy virHaF dI irafËq qy soc huMdI aY. pfiksqfn bxn mgroN hoNd ivc afAux vflf adb qy AuhdI qihkIk qy qnkId iksy jMglI pOdy XF acfnk AuBrn vfly iksy smuMdrI jËIry dI qrHF vjUd ivc nhIN afeI sgoN ieh ies qoN pihloN qoN mOjUd adb qy qihkIk v qnkId df qslsul ey. iehdy leI jYn, ihMdU, muslmfn, iswK qy eIsfeI dfinÈvrF ny apxI apxI soc qy iÌkr vkÌ kIqI qy iehƒ bfirÈ dIaF CuwtIaF CotIaF ikMxIaF qoN jl Ql qIk apVfieaf. pfiksqfn dy hoNd ivc afAux mgroN 1953 df sfl pMjfbI qihkIk qy qnkId leI aihm qy buinafdI irhf. ies vrHy ijQy ‘pMjfbI adb’ (muhMmd srUr) Èfie hoeI AuQy aÉqr vhId ny ‘mulqfnI Ëbfn df kfiedf’ Èfie kIqf qy agly eI sfl ilsfnIafq qy kvfied dI ikqfb ‘dUr v gOhr’ vI sfmxy ilaFdI. 1957 ivc zfktr muhMmd bfikr ny ‘pMjfbI ikwsy ÌfrsI Ëbfn myN’ dI pihlI ijld Èfie kIqI. ieQoN qIk pMjfbI dI qihkIk qy qnkId sFJf sÌr kr rhIaF sn. 1959 ivc vwKry qOr Auqy qnkId ÈurU hoeI qy hfiÌË abdul hmId srÈfr ny ‘suwcy moqI’ rfhIN nINh pwQr rwiKaf. iesy vrHy muhMmd awÌËl ÉF ny lwKxpfl dI murwqb kIqI vfirs Èfh dI hIr ƒ nvyN isirAuN soiDaf qy ÌkIr muhMmd ÌkIr ny ‘mihkdy Pul’ Èfie kIqI. imrËf sulqfn byg ny iesy smy lok adb vwl iDafn kIqf qy ‘pMjfbI dy aKfx’ Èfie kIqy. 1962 ivc ÈihbfË mulk dI ikqfb ‘cfnx’ Èfie hoeI. agly sfl bÈIr aihmd ËfmI ny bhfvl pur qoN qy muhMmd alI Ìfiek ny gujrFvflf qoN afpxy afpxy qOr Auqy pMjfbI kvfied dI iek iek ikqfb Èfie kIqI. ienHF ikqfbF dI aÈfafq kfrn pMjfbI dI grfiemr ingfrI vwl iek rjhfn kfiem hoieaf. 1965 ivc ies Éfnm ny ‘pMjfbI AurdU luÊq’ rfhIN pfiksqfn ivwc pMjfbI luÊq ingfrI dI buinafd rwKI. mhInf vfr ‘pMjfbI’ (muwZ: 1951), ‘pMj diraf’ (muwZ: 1958) qy ‘pMjfbI adb’ (muwZ: 1960) vÊYrf ny vI ies islisly ivc aihm iÉdmqF aMjfm idwqIaF. ies qrHF qihkIk qy qnkId df muwZ smJdfr qy isafxy lokF dy hwQoN bwJf qy ÈurU qoN eI eynf jFdfr irhf ik ijvyN ijvyN iksy moËUa Auqy koeI ikqfb sfmxy afeI, Auhny iek muhfV kfiem kr idwqf.

ies mukfly ivc qihkIk qy qnkId dIaF ienHF ikqfbF ƒ qfrIÉF qy qËkrIaF, qflImI adfiraF ivc ilKy gymkflIaF, luÊvI qy ilsfnI ikqfbF, soDkfrI qy Putkl qihkIk qy qnkId ivc vMz ky, vyrvf qy qjËIaf kIqf igaf ey. ieQy ienHF pMj srnfivaF hyT qihkIk qy qnkId dI tor df ajmflI jfieËf pyÈ kIqf jFdf ey:

1[ qfrIÉF qy qËkry
pfiksqfn ivwc pMjfbI Koj qy prK dy nYxf pwQr, muhMmd srUr dI AurdU ikqfb ‘pMjfbI adb’ qoN bfad 1953 ivc abdul-ÊÌUr kurYÈI dI pMjfbI ikqfb ‘pMjfbI Ëbfn df adb qy qfrIÉ’ Èfie hoeI. qihkIk qy qnkId dI tor ivc ies qoN bfad pYr v pYr vfDf huMdf irhf. 1959 ivc aYm[ sulqfn mihmUd df qËkrf ‘pMjfbI Èf pfry’ Èfie hoieaf qy iesy eI Ëmfny ivc lohf kuwt df ‘pMjfbI Ëbfn ky Èf pfry’ sfmxy afieaf. 1960 ivc mUlf bÉÈ kuÈqf ny afpxy gurmuKI qËkry ‘pMjfb dy hIry’ ƒ qOsIa idwqI qy ÌfrsI rsm alÉq ivc ‘pMjfbI ÈfierF df qËkrf’ dy nF nfl Èfie kIqf. 1962 ivc aijhIaF do ikqfbF Èfie hoeIaF. ienHF ivcoN iek bÈIr aihmd ËfmI dI ‘bhfvlporI mulqfnI Ëbfn v adb’ qy dUjI ÈmIm cODrI dI ‘pMjfbI adb v qfrIÉ’ ey. 1064 ivc vI do ikqfbF CpIaF. ienHF ivcoN iek zfktr abdfl slfm ÉurÈId dI afpxy vfild bfry ‘pMjfbI adb qy sfilk’ qy iek ahmd hsIn iklydfrI dI ‘pMjfbI adb kI muÉqsr qfrIÉ’ ey. agly sfl iPr do eI ikqfbF hoNd ivc afeIaF. ienHF ivcoN iek abdul-ÊÌUr kurYÈI dI ‘kivqf df avqfr’ qy dUjI ÌfrÊ buÉfrI dI ‘nvIaF rfvF’ ey. 1966 ivc vI ies pwK dIaF do eI ikqfbF sfmxy afeIaF. ienHF ivc iek qËkrf ‘lÊrF’  qy dUjf zfktr lfjonqI rfm ikRÈn df aMgryËI ivc Cipaf zI ilwt df mkflf ‘pMjfbI dy sUÌI Èfier’ pfiksqfn ivwc pihlI vfr ÌfrsI rsm alÉq ivc Èfie hoieaf. 1967 ivc ieko ikqfb Èfie hoeI qy ieh sfidk bÈIr dI ‘ruwq dIaF hMjoN’ ey. agly sfl do ikqfbF CpIaF. ienHF ivc zfktr aYm abduwlf cÊqfeI dI aMgryËI ikqfb ''Pakpatan and Baba Farid'' qy ÈÌI akIl dI AurdU ‘pMjfb rMg’’ Èfiml ny.

ÈÌI akIl ny 1970 ivc iek hor ikqfb ‘pMjfb ky pFc kdIm Èfier’ sfmxy ilaFdI. 1971 ivc Éfn rËvfnI df iek qËkrf ‘vsdIaF JokF’ Èfie hoieaf. iesy sfl jfÌr kfismI ny aMgryËI ivc bfbf ÌrId bfry ''Baba Farid-ud-Din Ganj-i-Shakar''Èfie kIqI.

1972 ivc abdul-ÊÌUr kurYÈI dI mfarUÌ ikqfb ‘pMjfbI adb dI khfxI’ qy nUr alI Ëfmn dI ‘mfafriÌ srfiekI’ CpI. agly sfl do qËkry, iekbfl slfh AuRdIn df ‘sMgI nfmf’, mumqfË alI zfhr qy muhMmd nvfË ÌfnI df muÈqrkf ‘vYNdy nIr’ dy nF nfl afey. isry brfeIafkoÌ dI pihloN mfsko qoN Èfie hox vflI ikqfb ''Punjabi Literature -A Brief Outline'' pfiksqfn ivwc vI Èfie hoeI. 1975 ivc bygm aMjum iglfnI ny ‘Èfn : afsUdf qUÌfn’ qy muhMmd abIdflrhmfn ny ‘Èfqr nmfnVF’ Èfie kIqIaF. ieh dovyN iek iek Èfier dy qËkrIaF Auqy mÈqml CotIaF ikqfbF ny. 1976 ivc ÈihbfË mulk dI adbI qfrIÉ ‘mUMh afeI gwl’ afeI ijhdy ivwc adbI qfrIÉ dy nfl nfl pMjfbI sUÌIaF vwloN vrqI jfx vflI Ëbfn ƒ adb leI munfsb mMinaf igaf. agly sfl aÈrÌ pfl qy mksUd nfisr cODrI ny rl ky iek qËkrf ‘Èfier pMj dirafvF dy’ Cfipaf. 1977 ivc qfrIÉ qy qËkry dy Kyqr dIaF iqMn ikqfbF Èfie hoeIaF. ienHF ivc Êulfm musqÌf ibsiml df mnËUm qËkrf ‘imly imwqrF dy’, rËf hmdfnI dI ikqfb ‘sfeIN aihmd alI pÈfvrI’ qy È[ ÈOkq vwloN qfrIÉ df qnkIdI muqflf ‘ihMdko Ëbfn kf qfrIÉI jfieËf’ dI sUrq ivc Èfie hoieaf. 1978 ivc ‘imly imwqrF dy’ dI qrHF df iek hor mnËUm qËkrf nfdm AusrI ny ‘qfry nIl ggn dy’ sfmxy ilaFdf. 1980 ivc ies iksm dI iPr iek ikqfb sfmxy afeI qy Auh kfËI jfvyd dI AurdU ilKq ‘pMjfb ky sUÌI dfinÈvr’ ey. 1981 ivc iqMn ikqfbF aijhIaF sfmxy afeIaF ijhnF ivcoN iek qfrIÉ, dUjf qËkrf qy qIjf iËmnI qOr Auqy pMjfbI adb dI qfrIÉ ibafn krdf ey. ienHF iqnF ivcoN pihlI ÈihbfË mulk dI ‘afËfdI dy mujfihd ilKfrI’ dUjI aËrf ivkfr dI AurdU ikqfb ‘vfirs Èfh kf aihd aOr ÈfierI’ qy qIjI abdflÈkor dI ‘pfiksqfnI adb’ ey. 1982 ivc aijhIaF do ikqfbF Èfie hoeIaF. ienHF ivcoN iek awlfmf iekbfl bfry abdul mjId sfijd dI ‘iekbfl dI hXfqI’ qy dUjf Êulfm musqÌf ibsiml df qËkrf ‘rUp ÉoÈbovF dy’ ey. agly sfl iPr do ikqfbF CpIaF. pihlI zfktr ÈihbfË mulk dI ‘qihrIk pfiksqfn aOr pMjfbI adb’ qy dUjI anvr ruhqkI dI ‘kfÌIaF bulHy Èfh’ df rIipRMt ey. 1964 ivc aijhIaF cfr ikqfbF sfmxy afeIaF. ienHF ivcoN pihlI imhr kfcIlvI dI ‘pMj qfry’ dUjI hmId awlHf hfÈmI dI pMjfbI adb kf ajmflI Éfkf’, qIjI idlÈfd klfncvI dI srfiekI aOr Aus kI nsr’ qy cOQI zfktr lIk bfbrI dI suÉn ky vfirs’ ey.

1985 ivc iqMn ikqfbF CpIaF ijhnF ivcoN iek iPr imhr kfcIlvI dI ‘vx sony Èfier’, iek zfktr sfbr afÌfkI dI ‘gujrI adb’ qy qIjI kfËI ÌËl hwk dI ‘inKyVy’ ey. ies qoN agly sfl swjfd hYdr prvyË dI ‘srfiekI adb dI muÉqsr qfrIÉ’ qy muhMmd Ëihr aÉqr dI ‘msAUd Kwdr poÈ’ Èfie hoeIaF. iesy Ëmfny ivc vfhd bÉÈ isafl dI bfbf ÌrId bfry iek AurdU ikqfb ‘mukfm gMj Èukr’, abdul rÈId nsIm qflUq df iliKaf hoieaf dIvfin ÌrId df dIbfcf iek kqfbVI dI sUrq ivc ‘Éuafjf Êulfm ÌrId’ dy nF nfl qy mIaF muhMmd iskMdr dI mIaF muhMmd bÉÈ bfry ikqfb ‘afriÌ KVI’ vI Èfie hoeIaF. 1987 ivc cfr qfrIÉF qy qËkry hoNd ivc afey. ienHF ivc rfjf rsflU dI qrqIb ‘zfktr nËIr aihmd’, idlÈfd klfncvI dIaF do ikqfbF ‘kdIm srfiekI Èfier qy adIb’ qy ‘srfiekI Ëbfn qy adb’ qy aihmd seId hmdfnI dI ‘hËrq bulHy Èfh’ Èfiml ny. agly sfl do ikqfbF, ierÈfd aihmd pMjfbI dI ‘bulHy Èfh kI soc’ qy hmId awlHf Èfh hfÈmI dI ‘pMjfbI Ëbfn v adb’ sfmxy afeIaF. 1089 Êulfm musqÌf ibsiml qy rAuÌ ÈyÉ ny rl ky ‘msq ÌkIr: qnvIr buÉfrI’ murwqb kIqI qy ÈÌkq qnvIr imrËf dI AurdU ikqfb ‘Èfh husYn’ Èfie hoeI. ies qoN agly eI vrHy hÌIË aihmd qy muhMmd akrm seId ny rl ky ‘Êulfm musqÌf ibsiml : Ìn qy ÈÉsIaq’ murwqb kIqI. 1991 ivc zfktr seIad aÉqr jfÌrI ny ‘bfbf-ey-pMjfbI’, slIm Éfn gmI ny ‘pMjfbI Ëbfn df ierqkfeI’ qy kIÌI jfm pUrI ny ‘srfiekI ÈfierI’ Cfpy cfVHI.

1992 ivc nbIlf rihmfn ny Aus islisly ƒ awgy toiraf ijhVf 1989 ivc ‘msq ÌkIr: qnvIr buÉfrI’ dI aÈfafq qoN iek ÈÉsIaq dy mqflfey df ÈurU hoieaf sI. ies vrHy AunHF dI ikqfb ‘pMjfbI adb qy zfktr ÈihbfË mulk’ qy hmId awlHf Èfh hfÈmI dI ‘pMjfbI adb dI muÉqsr qfrIÉ’ Èfie hoeI. 1993 ivc jfvyd GnjIrf ny ‘Puwl KVfnf bfr dy’ Èfie kIqI qy Éfild iekbfl Xfisr ny ‘aihvfl v afsfr’ dy do mËmUnF ivc pMjfbI idaF kuwJ ÈÉsIaqF qy AunHF dy muhfVF bfry gwl kIqI. 1994 ivc idlÈfd klfncvI df iliKaf iek qËkrf ‘srfiekI ÈfierI dy kuwJ muhFdry Èfier’ Èfie hoieaf. sfzy mqflfey dy afÉrI sfl ivc pMj ikqfbF Èfie hoeIaF ienHF ivcoN jy[ afr[ purI qy tI[ afr iÈMgfrI dI ikqfb ‘sfeIN bulHy Èfh’ pfiksqfn ivwc rIipRMt hoeI qy Éfvr nkvI ny ‘poTohfr’ nF dI ikqfb ivc ielfky ivc rcy jfx vfly pMjfbI adb ƒ vI moËUa bxfieaf. ienHF qoN awz bÈIr afibd qy aihsfn awlHf qfihr ny ‘zfktr ÈihbfË mulk :Ìn qy ÈÉsIaq’, muÉqfr alI nIr ny qfrIÉ Ëbfn v adb ihMdko’ qy arÈd mihmUd nfÈfd ny ‘iËlHf atk dy pMjfbI Èfier’ sfmxy ilaFdIaF.

2[ qflImI adfiraF ivc ilKy gey mukfly
qflImI adfiraF ivcoN pMjfbI Ëbfn v adb dI qflIm df muwZ pMjfb XUnIvristI lfhOr ivc AudoN buJf jdoN 1970 ivc ieQy aYm[ey pMjfbI dI swqf dI pVHfeI ÈurU hoeI. aYm[ey[ dI pihlI klfs 1972 ivc ÌfrÊ hoeI qy iehdy awikaf (21) qfilb ielmF ny qhkIkI mukfly ilKy. agly sfl cfr mukfly ilKy gey. pMjfb XUnIvrstI lfhOr dy Èuabf pMjfbI ivwc ilKy gey aYm[ey[ dI swqf dy dUjy mkflIaF df vyrvf ieMj ey ik 1974 ivc sq, 1975 ivc iqMn, 1976 ivc iek, 1980 ivc iek, 1982 ivc do, 1983 ivc Cy, 1984 ivc vI Cy, 1985 ivc iek, 1986 ivc ds, 1987 ivc do, agly vrHy awT, 1989 ‘c qyrF,1990 ivc solHF qy ies qoN agly sfl iqMn, 1992 ivc sq ilKqF sfmxy afeIaF qy 1993 ivc iqMn, 1994 ivc ds qy 1995 ivc pMj mukfly rcy gey.

ieslfmIaf XUnIvristI bhfvl pur ivc aYm[ey[ srfiekI df pihlf iemiqhfn 1991 ivc hoieaf. ieQy hux qIk EnI(19) Koj pwqr ilKy gey. ienHF qoN awz bhfAuafldIn ËkrIaf XUnIvristI mulqfn, ieslfmIaf XUnIvristI bhfvl pur, ipÈfvr XUnIvristI ipÈfvr qy kfiedfafËm XUnIvristI ieslfm afbfd dy Èuabf AurdU, ÌlsÌf, ieslfmIafq, shfÌq, muqflf pfiksqfn qy aYjUkyÈn aYNz irsrc vÊYrf ivwc rly imly swT (60) dy nyVy mukfly sfmxy afey. aYm[ey/aYm[ aYssI qoN awz Cy mukfly aYm[ iÌl dI pwDr dy vI hoNd ivc afey. ienHF ivcoN pihlf ahsn vfGf df ''Siraiki language, its Growth and Development'' ipÈfvr XUnIvristI dy Èuabf muqflf pfiksqfn vwloN iliKaf igaf. iehdy bfad pMj QIisË awlfmf iekbfl Epn XUnIvristI ieslfm afbfd ivc Èuabf AurdU vwloN ilKvfey gey. Epn XUnIvristI vfly qhkIkI mkflIaF ivc swjfd hYdr prvyË df ‘AurdU aOr srfiekI ky bfhm qrfjm kf qhkIkI v qnkIdI muqflf’ (1992), muhMmd ÈÌI hmdm df ‘Èyr awÌËl jfÌrI:hXfq v Ìn’(1992), mulk mumqfË husYn df ‘awlfmf aqIk iÌkrI: ÈÉsIaq aOr Ìn’ (1994), muhMmd akrm seId df ‘arÈd mIr:hXfq v Ìn’ (1995) qy sYdf afmnf ibhfr df ‘alqfÌ kurYÈI (ÈÉsIaq aOr Ìn)’ (1995) afAuNdy ny.

pIaYc[ zI[ pMjfbI dI pDr dy qyqI (33) mukfly sfmxy afey. ienHF ivcoN 30 pMjfb XUnIvristI vwloN, do bhfAuafldIn ËkrIaf XUnIvristI mulqfn vwloN qy iek ieslfmIaf XUnIvristI bhfvl pur vwloN aY. iehnF sb ivcoN pihlf ‘mOlvI aihmd Xfr:iÌkr qy Ìn’ ey ijhdy Auqy zfktr ÈihbfË mulk ƒ 1982 ivc izgrI imlI. ies pwDr dy dUjy mkflIaF ivc zfktr seIad aÉqr jfÌrI df ‘hËrq mIaF muhMmd bÉÈ dI hXfqI qy ÈfierI’, zfktr srÌrfË husYn ÌfrUkI df ‘pMjfbI mrsaf ingfrI’, zfktr aYm[ XfsIn ËÌr df ‘ielfkf poTohfr dI ÈfierI (muwZ kdIm qoN lY ky awj qIkr pMjfbI ÈfierI df qfrIÉI qy qnkIdI jfieËf)’, zfktr muhMmd sfidk jMjoafh df ‘mOlvI Êulfm rsUl dI hXfqI qy ikqfbF’, zfktr muhMmd bÈIr cODrI df ‘seIad ÌËl Èfh nvF kotI: jIvn qy klf, zfktr muhMmd aslm rfxf df ‘joÈvf ÌËl AuRdIn : hXfqI, iÌkr qy Ìn’, zfktr idlÈfd nsIm df ‘iÌroË dyx ÈrÌ :hXfqI, iÌkr qy Ìn’, zfktr ienfm alhk jfvyd df ‘pfiksqfn ivc pMjfbI adb df ierqkf’, zfktr afÌqfb ahmdnkvI df ‘pMjfbI nfaq’, zfktr iesmq awlHf Ëfihd df ‘noÈf gMj bÉÈ :hXfqI, iÌkr qy Ìn’, zfktr surwXf aihmd df ‘seIad hfiÈm Èfh, AunHF df dOr qy ÈfierI’, zfktr qfihr mihmUd kurYÈI df ‘pMjfbI Ëbfn ivc ieslfmI qblIÊ df adb’, zfktr eyjfË aihmd bYg df ‘ÌkIr muhMmd ÌkIr : hXfqI qy Ìn’, zfktr qfilb husYn buÉfrI df ‘vfirs Èfh qy AuhdI hIr dy ikrdfrF qy itkfixaF df qhkIkI jfieËf’, zfktr muhMmd XUns ahkr df ‘hkIm nfisr : qihkIk qy qnkId’, zfktr aÉqr husYn aÉqrdf ‘pMjfbI vfrF : qfrIÉ qy qjËIaf’, zfktrÈfhd mihmUd (kfÈmIrI) df ‘dfiem iekbfl dfiem: jfx pCfx qy ielmI adbI kfrnfmy’, zfktrnsrfllf ÉF nfisr df ‘pMjfbI ÈfierI df arqkf’, zfktr hÌIË aihmd df ‘XUsuÌ ËlYÉf df qhkIkI qy qnkIdI muqflf’, zfktr sfeIdf bfno (irÈm) df ‘pMjfbI adb ivc sIrq rsUl s’, zfktr Èokq alI kmr df ‘alI hYdr: qhkIkI qy qnkIdI jfieËf’, zfktr mhmd irafË Èfihd df ‘bulHy Èfh: iÌkr qy Ìn’, zfktrf llf ruwKf (aÉqr) BwtI df ‘nvyN pMjfbI nËm’, zfktr nbIlf rihmfn df ‘pMjfbI ÈfierI dy arqkf ivc kfdrIaF df ihwsf’, zfktr mhmd ÈwbIr (afidl) sdIkI df ‘mUlf bÉÈ kuÈqf: Èfier qy nsr ingfr’, zfktr rÈd mihmUd df ‘hIr vfirs Èfh ivc kfnUnI rjhfn’, zfktr sfeId
Éfvr Buwtf df ‘abdul mjId BwtI: aihd ÈÉsIaq qy ielmI adbI kfrnfmy’, zfktr jfvId iekbfl Éfild (GnjIrf) df ‘hfiÌË brÉurdfr rFJf: hXfqI, iÌkr qy Ìn’, zfktr nvId aihmd ÈihËfd df ‘pfiksqfnI pMjfbI gIq 1947 qoN 1997 qIk’, zfktr nfisr rfxf df ‘pfiksqfnI dUr dI qihkIk v qnkId : vyrvf qy qjËIaf; qy zfktr bdflrËfk Èfihd df ‘sfhIvfl dI pMjfbI adbI qfrIÉ’ Èfiml ny.

pIaYc[zI[ pMjfbI qoN awz zfktr imhr abdflhk ny pMjfb XUnIvristI lfhOr dy Èuabf AurdU vwloN ‘mulqfnI Ëbfn aOr Aus kf AurdU sy qfaluwk’, Èuabf ÌlsÌf vwloN zfktr gulnfË pRvr ny 1988 ivc ‘pMjfbI klfiskI ÈfierI mYN Ìrd kf qswvr’, bhfAuafldIn ËkrIaf XUnIvristI mulqfn dy Èuabf AurdU vwloN rubInf qrIN ny ‘mulqfn kI adbI v qihËIbI iËMdgI mYN soÌIafey krfm kf ihwsf (dsvyN sdI ihjrI ky bfad AurdU adb kI qÉsIs ky sfQ)’ qy muÉqfr aihmd ËÌr ny ‘mulqfn kI iÈarI rvfieq bhvflf rfjf abduwlf inafË, Ausd mulqfnI, awlfmf qflUq, kÈÌI mulqfnI, kIÌI jfm pUrI aOr ÈÌkq kfËmI’ qy Èuabf ÌlsÌf vwloN zfktr ÈihËfd kysr df ''Mataphysics of Khwaja Farid'' dy mOjUaF qy afpxy afpxy zfktryt dy mkflIaF ivc pMjfbI qihkIk qy qnkId dy pwK vI vrqy ny.

3[ luÊvI qy ilsfnI ikqfbF
ies Kyqr dy kMm dI nYxf aÉqr vhId dy ‘mulqfnI Ëbfn df kfiedf’ ny 1953 ivc bnHI. iesy ilKfrI ny 1954 ivwc ‘dUr vgohr’ Èfie kr ky buinafdI kvfied ivc vI brqrI mnvf leI. iehdy bfad 1963 ivc bÈIr aihmd ËfmI qy muhMmd alI Ìfiek ny pMjfbI kvfied dI iek iek hor ikqfb idwqI. ienHF ivcoN pihly ilKfrI ny apxI ikqfb leI ‘nÉlsqfin kvfied’ qy dUjy ny ‘pMjfbI kvfied’ dy nF vrqy. 1965 ivc ies Éfnm ny ‘pMjfbI AurdU luÊq’ dy nF nfl iek luÊq dI aÈfafq ÈurU kIqI. iesy vrHy muÉqfr alI nIr dI ikqfb ‘ihMdko nsr dI khfnVI ( khfxI); Èfie hoeI. ieho ikqfb muswnÌ ny 1977 ivc ‘ihMdko kvfied’ dy nF nfl vI Èfie kIqI. 1967 ivc zfktr imhr abdflhk ny ‘mulqfnI Ëbfn aOr Aus kf AurdU sy qfaluwk’ dy nF nfl apxf pIaYc[ zI df mkflf Èfie kIqf. agly sfl bÈIr aihmd ËfmI ny ‘bhfvlporI mulqfnI Ëbfn aOr Aus ky Éfs hroiÌ qhjI’ qy 1970 ivc ‘srfiekI Ëbfn kf ierqkf eI’ Èfie kIqI.

1921 ivc ierÈfd aihmd pMjfbI ny ‘pMjfbI luÊfq’ idqI. ieh ies Éfnm dy bfad iek aihm koiÈÈ sI. 1973 ivc muhMmd bÈIr cODrI df ‘pMjfbI kfiedf’ qy imrËf mkbUl bYg bdÉÈfnI dI ‘kvfafid pMjfbI Ëbfn’ sfmxy afeI. ies qoN agly sfl ierÈfd aihmd pMjfbI ny luÊq ivc iek hor kdm cuwikaf qy ‘AurdU pMjfbI luÊq’ Èfie kIqI. iesy sfl iekbfl slfh AuRdIn dI ikqfb ‘pMjfbI df rsm alÉq qy mfeIafrI amlf’ Èfie hoeI. ies qoN agly sfl idlÈfd klfncvI dI arUË dI ikqfb ‘srfiekI ÈfierI dy AuËfn qy kvfÌI’ qy zfktr imhr abdflhk dI ‘mËId ilsfnI qhkIkF’ Èfie hoeIaF. 1976 ivc aslm rsUl pUrI qy Aumr kmfl Éfn dI sFJI ikqfb ‘srfiekI rsm alÉq kI muÉqsr qfrIÉ’ qy muhMmd afisÌ Éfn, isbq alhsn ËYÊm qy ÈrIÌ sfbr dI sFJI ‘pMjfbI lÌËflI’ sfmxy afeIaF. ies qoN agly sfl ÈihbfË milk ny ‘pMjfbI ilsfnIafq’, zfktr imhr abdflhk ny ‘srfiekI Ëbfn aOr Aus kI hmsfaf ielfkfeI ËbfnyN’ qy jmÈyd kmqr rsUl pUrI ny ‘srfiekI sml’ ilKIaF. iesy vrHy tI[jI[ bYlI dI ilKI ''Panjabi Grammer'' pMjfbI adbI lihr lfhOr ny dubfrf Èfie kIqI qy iesy smy muÈqfk bfsq dI ikqfb ‘pfk pMjfbI’ Èfie hoeI. ‘pfk pMjfbI’ dI aihmIaq ilsfnI dy nfl nfl iËmnI qOr Auqy adbI qfrIÉ dI vI ey.

1980 ivc Ìdfey aqhr qy aslm kurYÈI ny ‘invyklI srfiekI izkÈnrI’ dI pihlI iksq Èfie kIqI. iesy vrHy muhMmd aslm rsUl pUrI dI ‘srfiekI rsm alÉq kI muÉqsr qfrIÉ’ dI qOsIa ‘srfiekI Ëbfn, afAuNdf rsm alÉq qy afvfËF’ Èfie hoeI. 1981 ivc ÈrIÌ kuMjfhI dI ‘muÉqsr pMjfbI luÊq’, ierÈfd aihmd pMjfbI df ‘pMjfbI nfmf’, idlÈfd klfncvI dI ‘lÊfiq dlÈfdaf’ qy Êulfm XfkUb anvr dI iÈarI lvfËmfq qy arUË Auqy iek ikqfb ‘bol qy qul’ sfmxy afeIaF. 1982 ivc srdfr muhMmd Éfn dI ‘pMjfbI Aucfrn izkÈnrI’ Èfie hoeI qy pMjfbI adbI lihr ny ey[afr[ ilc dI ‘pMjfbI kvfied’ dubfrf CfpI. ies qoN agly sfl jmfl AuRdIn huÈIafrpurI ny ‘pMjfbI df ajmflI kfiedf’ (gurmuKI) Èfie kIqf. 1984 ivc cfr iËkr jog ikqfbF sfmxy afeIaF. ienHF ivcoN do zfktr imhr abdflhk dIaF, ‘lÊfiq ÌrIdI’ qy ‘srfiekI Ëbfn dy kfafdy kfƒn’ ny. ies sfl bÈIr aihmd BfeIh ny vI srfiekI kvfied bfry iek ikqfb ‘srfiekI kvfied qy Ëbfn dfnI’ Èfie kIqI. 1984 ivc eI muhMmd afisÌ Éfn qy qnvIr buÉfrI ny pMjfbI msdr ‘kx lyKf’ dy nF nfl Cfpy cfVHy. 1987 ivc ÈOkq muÊl dI iek ikqfb ‘kdIm AurdU luÊq aOr srfiekI Ëbfn’ qy ‘srfiekI kfiedf’ Èfie hoey. ies qoN agly vrHy qnvIr buÉfrI dI ‘mfhIaf:Ìn qy bxqr'’ hoNd ivc afeI. 1989 ivc qnvIr buÉfrI d eI eI ‘pMjfbI AurdU luÊq’, idlÈfd klfncvI dI ‘srfiekI lÊfiq dlÈfdaf’ qy muhMmd srÌrfË imrËf dI ‘kvfafid pMjfbI Ëbfn’ Èfie hoieaF. ies qoN agly vrHy iqMn aihm ikqfbF sfmxy afeIaF ijhnF ivwc ierÈfd aihmd pMjfbI dI ‘AurdU pMjfbI sFJ’, dlÈfd klfncvI dI ‘srfiekI ilsfnIafq’ qy ÈOkq muÊl dI ‘AurdU mYN srfiekI Ëbfn ky animt nkÈ’ Èfiml ny.

1992 ivc do ikqfbF Èfie hoeIaF ijhnF ivcoN mYmn abdul mjId isMDI dI ‘lsfnIafiq pfiksqfn’ ivwc pMjfbI Ëbfn qy adb df iËmnI iËkr ey jd ik mulk abduwlf ierÌfn dI ilKq ‘srfiekI Ëbfn lfqInI awKrF ivc’ pMjfbI dy srfiekI aMg nfl mqfilk ey. 1993 ivc bÈIr aihmd ËfmI dI ‘srfiekI ierd v bol cfl’ qy jmIl aihmd pfl dI ‘pMjfbI klfiskI luÊq’ afeI qy aÉqr husYn Éfn, ËubYr bx kfism qy ÌYafË ËÌr byg ny rl ky ‘srfiekI kfiedf’ Èfie kIqf. ies qoN agly sfl qnvIr buÉfrI dI ‘qnvIrfllÊfq’, rfxf srdfr aihmd seId dI ‘srfiekI Ëbfn m aKfx’ qy ÈOkq muÊl dy ‘srfiekI kfiedf’ dy rMgIn aYzIÈn Èfie hoey. sfzy mqflfey dy afÉrI sfl ivc luÊvI qy ilsfnI pwK dIaF iqMn ilKqF sfmxy afeIaF. ienHF ivc aËIË mYNgl dI AurdU ikqfb ‘pMjfbI brfhvI ilsfnI irÈqy’, amIn iÉafl, jmIl aihmd pfl qy Êulfm musqÌf ibsiml df sFJf ‘pMjfbI kfiedf’ qy AulÌq qnvIr buÉfrI dI arUË Auqy ‘hËj’ Èfiml ny. ies iksm dIaF kuwJ ilKqF aijhIaF ny ijhnF dy sfl aÈfafq bfry jfxkfrI nhIN imldI. ienHF ivc jmIl aihmd pfl dI ‘pMjfbI AurdU luÊfq’, ierÈfd aihmd pMjfbI dI ‘pMjfbI luÊfq’, bÈIr aihmd ËfmI dI ‘lÊfiq srfiekI’, mrkiË qihkIk v qrwkI insfb mihkmf qflIm df kfiedf ‘a[ b[ pƒƒ, muhMmd afisÌ Éfn df ‘pMjfbI kfiedf’ mËml aihmd df ‘pMjfbI kfiedf’, msAUd KdrpoÈ trwst df ‘pMjfbI kfiedf’, Êulfm husYn rfhI qy ÌYafË husYn df ‘pihlI jmfq df kfiedf’ qy idlÈfd klfncvI df ‘srfiekI kfiedf’ iËkr jog ny.

4[ soD kfrI
soD kfrI dI nYxf muhMmd awÌËl ÉF ny 1959 ivc hIr vfirs Èfh murwqb kr ky rwKI. iehdy bfad ÌkIr muhMmd ÌkIr ny 1962 ivc pYr muhMmd dI ‘icwTIaF dI vfr’ qy pIlU dI ‘imrËf sfihbF’ Èfie kIqI. iehdy vI bfad ies soDkfr ny ‘kkfry’ (1963), ‘klIafiq hdfieq’ (1963), ‘hIr vfirs Èfh’ (1963), ‘bol ÌrIdI’ (1965), mIaF muhMmd bÉÈ dI ‘sYÌ al mlUk’ (1965), hfiÌË brÉurdfr dI ‘imrËf sfihbF’ (1965) qy njfbq dI ‘nfdr dI vfr’ (1965) vÊYrf vI Èfie kIqIaF. 1963 ivc ielfhI bÉÈ aÉqr ievfn ny ‘dIvfin Gfiel’ qy zf: rohId kurYÈI ny abdI kysr ÈfhI df ‘Xfr nfmf’ Èfie kIqy. 1965 ivc srfiekI adbI mjils ny Éuwrm bhfvlporI dI ‘ÉIafbfin Éuwrm’ Èfie kIqI qy 1966 ivc irafË icÈqI, jmIl hfÈmI qy bfÊ husYn kmfl ny rl ky ‘klfim Èfh murfd’ Cfipaf. iesy vrHy mjils Èfh husYn lfhOr ny Èfh husYn df klfm ‘kfÌIaF Èfh husYn qy rsflf qhnIq’ dy nF nfl mMËr afm qy ilaFdf.

1967 ivc ÈihbfË milk ny pMjfbI aKfxF df pihlf prfgf ‘so isafxy ieko mq’ dy nF nfl qy ÌkIr muhMmd ÌkIr ny ‘hIr hfiÌË Èfh jhF mukbl’ Èfie kIqI. ies qoN agly sfl anvr bYg ievfn dI ikqfb ‘DvnI adb v skfÌq’ Èfie hoeI. 1970 ivc mksUd nfisr cODrI dI ‘pMjfb dy lok gIq’ qy krm hYdrI dI ‘poTohfrI gIq’ Èfie hoeI. iehdy nfl eI imrËf muhMmd iekbfl dI ‘poTohfrI gIq’ vI CpI. 1972 ivc XUsuÌ qfihr ny hfjI muhMmd sÌorI dI swsI puƒ, muhMmd afisÌ Éfn ny Èfh muhMmd dI ‘jMg ihMd pMjfb’ qy arÈd mIr ny bwJ myrf bJkf’ sfmxy ilaFdIaF. ies qoN agly sfl zfktr muhMmd bfikr ny hIr vfirs Èfh aYizt kIqI qy iesy vrHy awÌËl prvyË dI ‘bx PulvfVI’ qy ÈihbfË mulk dI ‘pwkI rotI’ Érd Èfie hoeIaF. 1974 ivc ÈihbfË mulk dI ‘jMg nfmf mukbl qy pMjfbI mrsaf’ Èfie hoeI. 1976 ivc aihmd husYn iklydfrI ny hfiÌË brÉurdfr df rsflf bohl nmfË, zfktr nËIr aihmd ny bulHy Èfh df klfm qy mksUd nfisr cOÖrI ny ‘lok KyzF’ Èfie kIqIaF. 1977 ivc ies Kyqr dIaF cfr ikqfbF Èfie hoeIaF. ienHF ivc muhMmd aslm rsUl pUrI dI ‘scl srmsq’, kXUm Èfikr dI ‘pYr dI hIr’, qnvIr buÉfrI dI ‘pMjfb ky lok Kyl’ qy pfro dI lok gIqF dI qrqIb ‘pfr cnfnhoN’ Èfiml nyN. 1978 ivc aslm rsUl pUrI dI aglI ikqfb ‘byidl isMD’, sdIk qfihr dI ‘scl srmsq’, iesmq awlHf Ëfihd dI ‘afKy noÈf kfdrI’, hmIdfllf Èfh hfÈmI dI ‘ikwsf hIr rFJf ieË hfiÌË Èfh jhF mukbl’, ÈrIÌ sfbr dI ‘klfm kfdr Xfr’, awÌËl prvyË dI ƒ’kihMdf sfeIN’, aYn alhk ÌrId kotI dI ‘hIr icrfÊ ievfn’, zfktr ÈhbfË mulk dI ‘sfzy aKfx’, eyjfË zIrvI dI ‘srfiekI aKfx’, ey[zI[ eyjfË dI ‘cfnjy Cwqy’, mËhr alfslfm dI ‘lok pMjfb’ qy abdul-ÊÌUr drÈn dI ‘lok qmfÈy’ Èfie hoeIaF. agly sfl zfkt rfhmd husYn iklydfrI ny hfiÌË brÉurdfr rFJf df ‘jMg nfmf iemfm husYn’, zfktr nËIr aihmd ny ‘klfm Èfh husYn’ qy rfÈd husn rfxf ny lok gIqF dI iek qrqIb ‘sony df kuwl mfhIaf’ Èfie kIqI.

1980 ivc sqnfm mihmUd, irafË aihmd Èfd, bfÊ husYn kmfl, ÈfhIn mulk qy abdul-ÊÌUr drÈn ny lok adb ivc kMm kIqf qy qrqIb syqI ‘awlHf vflI kul df’, ‘bfqF’, ‘lok gfvx’, ‘ijMdVI’ qy ‘bolIaF’ Èfie kIqIaF. ies qoN agly vrHy zfktr ÈihbfË milk ny ‘rfkb ksUrI dIaF nfqF’ qy ‘jMg nfmf pIr muhMmd kfsbI’, ey[ zI[ eyjfË ny ‘kfl blIndI’, ierÈfd aihmd pMjfbI ny cfr ikqfbF ‘afl mfl Qfl’, ‘bflF dy mn pRcfvy’, ‘pMj igwty’ qy ‘pMj pKyrU’, bÈIr aihmd ËfmI ny ‘bhfir srfiekI’, Êulfm husYn aËhr ny ‘gujrI phfVI lok gIq’ qy ÌfrUk BojIafnI ny ‘bfq bqolI’ nF dIaF ikqfbF idqIaF. 1983 ivc hsnyn kIsrfnI dI iek ikqfb ‘srfiekI buJfrqF’ qy ierÈfd aihmd pMjfbI dIaF do, ‘pMj khfxIaF’ qy ‘lY lY lorIaF’ Èfie hoeIaF. 1984 ivc sq ikqfbF afeIaF ijhnF ivwc iekbfl slfh AuRdIn dI ‘sYÌ al mlUk ieË mIaF muhMmd bÉÈ’, iÉËr awbfs nOÈfhI dI ‘klIafiq awbfsI’, zfktr nËIr aihmd dI ‘klfm bfbf ÌrId gMj Èukr’, Èfrb dI ‘kunIn buMdy’, aYm[ XfsIn ËÌr dI ‘ikafrIaF’, bÈIr aihmd ËfmI dI ‘srfiekI lok khfxIaF’ qy muÈqfk sUÌI d eI ‘bfr dy gIq’ Èfiml ny. iehdy qoN agly sfl lok adb dI Koj dIaF iqMn ikqfbF ivKflI idMidaF ny. ienHF ivcoN iek Èfrb dI ‘bfr dy Zoly’ qy do zfktr sYÌ al-rihmfn zfr dIaF ‘ruwK qF hry Bry’ qy ‘ijQy ipwplF dI TMzI CF’ ny. iehdy qoN agly vrHy ÉulÈ pYr ashfbI dI ‘mulqfnI mrsaf’, muhMmd ÈrIÌ sfbr dI ‘hIr vfirs Èfh’, muhMmd afisÌ Éfn dI ‘hIr dmodr’, kMvl muÈqfk dI ‘bolIaF’, nYÈnl kONisl afÌ imAUiËk dI ‘pMjfbI lok gIq’, ierÈfd aihmd pMjfbI dI ‘JUty Julfry’ qy arÈd mIr dI ‘vIr dIaF GoVIaF’ Èfie hoeIaF.
1987 ivc sfmxy afAux vflIaF ikqfbF ivc zfktr aÉqr jfÌrI dI mrqbf ‘injfq almomInIn ieË abdul krIm JMgvI’, zfktr ÈihbfË mulk dI ‘swsI puƒ ieË hfiÌË brÉurdfr muslmfnI’ qy muhMmd afisÌ Éfn dI ‘afiKaf bfbf ÌrId ny’ Èfiml ny. 1988 ivc zfktr ÈihbfË mulk dI ‘swsI puƒ ieË hfiÌË brÉurdfr rFJf’ ËÌr mkbUl dIaF iqMn ‘iPr geIaF ruwqF’, ‘gÌq guÌqfr’ qy ‘ltkyN ltkyN afigaf’, afkfey muhMmd aslm rfËI dI ‘pMjfbI aKfx’, qnvIr buÉfrI dI ‘isrF qy swdF’ qy ÈfhIn mulk dI ‘lihMdI iÈar rIq’ Èfie hoieaF. ies qoN agly sfl Cy ikqfbF hoNd ivc afeIaF qy ieh iekbfl slfh AuRdIn dI ‘ahsn alkss ieË mOlvI Êulfm rsUl’, muhMmd aslm rsUl pUrI dI ‘hml lÊfrI’, zfktr aslm rfxf dI ‘scl srmsq’, muhMmd afisÌ Éfn dI ‘kfÌIaF Èfh husYn’, nvfb isafl dI ‘nfdrÈfh dI vfr’qy iekbfl Ausd dI ‘gMjI bfr dy Zoly’ ny. ies qoN bfad 1991 ivc soJ kfrI dy Cy nmUny sfmxy afey. ienHF ivc muhMmd ÈrIÌ sfbr dI ‘bulHy Èfh mukMml kfÌIaF’, zfktr seIad aÉqr jfÌrI df ‘ikwsf Èfh mnsUr’, seId Buwtf dI ‘klIafq Èfh aËIm’, aihmd slIm dI ‘lok vfrF’, Aumr kmfl Éfn dI ‘mulqfnI vfrF’ qy abdul-ÊÌUr aËhr dI ‘ngIny’ Èfiml nyN.
Koj BrpUr lyK df pihlf ihwsf - dUjf aqy qIjf ihwsf jldI hI pysL kIqf jfvygf (cldf) - sMpfdk